It’s an insidious system, but it’s the one we have. 7. ), • Note #4: Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide and crop desiccant. To the soil, to the people, to global warming? In the U.S. beef slaughtering and processing industry, for example, the four largest companies earn 82 percent of the sales.20 In the supermarket industry, four companies earn at least 42 percent of the sales.21. 2nd ed. Most often before they even plant they’ll go into the fields and with chemicals kill all the weeds that are there. Like work on an assembly line, specialized labor often involves repetitive tasks that can be performed by machines. I said “well my friend it didn’t grow so you don’t have to worry about that.” But they were so concerned because they have eliminated the boll weevil in Georgia. (Note: The plant that exploded was owned by Union Carbide and the explosion took place in 1984). Rashid – Yeah, that’s where it was used to defoliate the trees so they could see the Vietnamese as they were walking along the paths. Above photo: Atlanta’s OG of black farming, K. Rashid Nuri, at Truly Living Well’s Old Fourth Ward farm. Before 1776: Life in the American Colonies [lectures]. Here on the program on WRFG and the grace that you’ve given me with the opportunity to talk with folks on Just Peace, we can try to educate folks and help them to have a better understanding of these paradigms and how they effect us. While productivity increase is a major objective, it is equally important to produce more income by value adding, processing, manufacturing, and developing markets for both raw and processed agricultural products. Around 75% of this income was from meat and feed for the animals that produce it. What they have done is say “we know better than nature does and we’re going to control or dominate what happens in the soil.” That has got us where we are today. Just like an audit that you get from an accountant, based upon the information that has been provided to us, we think this is a good audit. In the same amount of time, a mechanized thresher can process 450 to 600 kg of rice, sorghum, or beans, or 1,500 to 2,000 kg of corn.8 Photo: public domain. When the dust bowl in America happened before the Second World War, during the depression, there were a lot of factors that came together. Rashid – It’s a very simple proposition. 1998;56(1):15-33. A chicken farmer, for example, might turn a greater profit on each bird by housing a larger number of birds (up to a point). In operation by 1865, it was among the earliest U.S. businesses to exemplify the industrial model, setting precedents other industries would follow. Began in Great Britain in 1780s Improvements in agriculture raised food production lower food prices more disposable income and raised demand for manufactured goods Rapid population growth Failure of traditional cottage industries to keep up with the huge demand of cotton clothes throughout Britain The Early Phase of Revolution Let me try to explain. 2006. Wikipedia, • Note #2: Hybridization is the process of crossing two genetically different individuals to result in a third individual with a different, often preferred, set of traits.Plants of the same species cross easily and produce fertile progeny. The boll weevils couldn’t wait for that cotton crop – some more cotton – let’s go get it! Rifkin J. The shift to agriculture is believed to have occurred independently in several parts of the world, including northern China, Central America, and the Fertile Crescent, a region in the Middle East that cradled some of the earliest civilizations. In Congress, if I give you $50,000 campaign contribution or through a political action committee and you get re-elected and you know what my point of view is on a subject, you’re going to listen to me because you want to get that money again so you can get re-elected. Over the brief span of the 20 th century, agriculture underwent greater change than … Industrialization is a transformation away from an agricultural- or resource-based economy, toward an economy based on mass manufacturing. There are a lot of folks who come up to me and say “Oh, Rashid you’re a master of this and a master of that.” And I explain, “No, as long as I’m living, I’m going to continue to learn.”. I have friends who have lived in the city of Atlanta all their lives. Antibiotics, for example, were introduced to swine, poultry, and cattle feed after a series of experiments in the 1940s and 1950s found that feeding the drugs to animals caused them to gain weight faster and on less feed.13 By 2009, 80 percent of the antibiotic drugs sold in the U.S. were used not for human medicine but for livestock production.14. The history of American agriculture (1776–1990) covers the period from the first English settlers to the modern day. The Soviet Union, for instance, industrialized largely on the basis of forced labour and eliminated the entrepreneur, while in Japan strong state involvement stimulated and sustained the entrepreneur’s role. 1600-1760: Proto-industrialization in rural areas, organized and financed by rich merchants (e.g., via the putting-out system7); The only way you’re really going to know what you’re getting in your food is to grow it yourself or go to someone you know who is growing the food for you. Nadia Ali – When you say it got us where we are today, are you speaking about all of the countries and agricultural communities on the planet or just the western ones? The best that you can do is be in harmony with and in tune with nature which is the essence of natural urban agriculture. Meat, milk, and egg production became largely separated from crop production and involved facilities that housed a single breed of animal, during a particular period of its lifespan, for a single purpose (e.g., breeding, feeding, or slaughter). It’s all a part of Mother Earth. Rashid – Yeah there’s a lot there. The processes were time-consuming, making the available products very limited and expensive. You have to feed the soil. Below are detailed timelines covering farm machinery and technology, transportation, life on the farm, farmers and the land, and crops and livestock. INDUSTRIALIZATION or Industrial development describes the process of transition from an agricultural society, devoid of mechanization, to a society that is based on industry. Image credit: Michael Milli and Brent Kim. This process gradually leads to a class of workers … , “ The Relative Efficiency of Slavery: A Comparison of Northern and Southern Agriculture in 1860,” Explorations in Economic History, 8 (Spring 1971), pp. 1 By 5000 BCE, agriculture was practiced in every major continent except Australia. You need more of it in order to get it done. He spent many years in India using elephant dung to grow food. Most of this was accounted for by herbicide use. Then we skip forward to the 150 years ago you’re talking about. We are in an age now of wave theory, quantum mechanics as a way of looking at the universe. 38 Schmookler suggests that “inventiveness,” measured by the number of patents issued, is related to changes in the demand for the output of the industry. In the U.S. market for salty snacks, for example, 64 percent of sales are earned by PepsiCo.19. Tampa, Florida; circa 1920. San Antonio, TX: University of Missouri; 1996. 22. They were not enriching the soil. Today, almost every product is mass-produced, but this wasn't always the case. In addition to its damaging environmental effects, the chemical has caused major health problems for many individuals who were exposed. North Carolina State University played an integral role in the industrialization of all of these agricultural commodities. Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future, 2013. If a watch is broken and you are able to take the watch apart and then you can see where all the parts fit, if there is one part that’s broken you can put it back in and make the clock work again. Then they add the round-up to kill the things as they emerge from the soil so you just have the plants. He would also use the hay in his farm to make compost that he would put that back in the ground and grow his food. Industrialization is usually associated with … Kirschenmann FL. That’s never happened in history before. Labor and Industrialization in American History The phrase ‘Rise Of Smokestack America’ is often used in reference to the industrial revolution during which America’s industrial growth led to the growth of factories and modern cities, the development of social classes due to division of labor and race. It was Newtonian physics, Newtonian mechanics. When and where did industrialized agriculture and ILOs come into being, and 2. Industrialization of Agriculture; Consequences and Challenges of Sustainability [1] John Ikerd [2] The modern sustainable agriculture movement in the U.S. was born in the mid-1980s from the merging of three different streams of public concern. Bibliography By Faisal Hafizh AGS - Gr.11 Significance Tool making is an old but very significant turning point of human history. Part of the requirement is to use lots of water to get the chemicals down in the soil, to hold them down, and to help them uptake to the plants. It doesn’t work. In some cases, market concentration can lower prices for consumers and increase sales.23 On the other hand, with fewer competitors in a concentrated market, dominant companies may gain greater power to influence prices in their favor.23 They may also dictate how foods are produced, leaving farmers with little choice over how to grow crops or raise animals.18 Many highly concentrated corporations also have a strong presence in government agencies, where they can influence policies in their favor.24. 364 – 365. You give us that political agreement that we asked for, and we’ll ship you tons of food.What does that do? 5. – Mary Hendrickson and Harvey S. James Jr.18, Market share is the proportion of an industry’s sales earned by one company. In the beginning of the 20th century, the U.S. was a rural country – about 40 percent of Americans were farmers and more than half of those people lived in countryside. Zimdahl RR. San Antonio, TX: University of Missouri; 1996. This period is marked by industrialization, agriculture, and expansion. War is a very, very profitable enterprise. 38 Schmookler suggests that “inventiveness,” measured by the number of patents issued, is related to changes in the demand for the output of the industry. A carrot is a carrot. 24. In other words there was tons of cotton in one field that provided the opportunity for the boll weevil to attack it. They have to eat and if your whole economy has been destroyed the Americans said, “we’ll give you food if you let us invest in your country and if you follow our rules.” They used the Public Law 480 program that came to fruition in the late 40s and early 50s, which was “Food for Peace“. Specialized farmers, by contrast, can focus all their knowledge, skills, and equipment on one or two enterprises, such as growing corn and soy, or fattening beef cattle. You’ve got tall plants, short plants, trees, forests wherever you are. The French and English armies during the Hundred Years War marched back and forth across the land; they ransacked and burned towns, drained the food supply, disrupted agriculture and trade, and left disease and famine in their wake. I respect the work you are doing in a basic and essential part of life that is just overlooked by everybody. If you want to sit and have some shade there’s beautiful trees out there – why not get a fruit tree so you can eat it as well as get shade. This lesson will look at t… Look what kind of yields you will get, but it’s going to cost you this much to get it.” Then each year you come back you’ve to get more and more of the fertilizers. You have the different plants growing next to each other – companion planting – and the plants will repel insects and repel disease. 1997;83(5):531-41. The plant exploded and poisoned all the people in a wide radius around the plant and killed tens of thousands of people. And every year you plant again, the plants and the insects become more and more resistant to all these chemicals. You can’t save a 10th and put it back the next year. Synthetic nitrogen fertilizers, introduced in the early 1900s, have been credited with feeding the lion’s share of a global population that grew from 1.6 to 6 billion over the 20th century. This includes fruits, nuts, vegetables, wheat, and rice. Gustafson RH, Bowen RE. 26 Petraň, Joseph, “A propos de la formation des régions de la production spécialisée en Europe centrale,’ Second International Conference of Economic History, Aix-en-Provence 1962 (Paris: Mouton, 1965), pp. Weed Res. You can’t save your seeds and put them back the next year as farmers has always done. Almost all successfully industrialized economies have gone through these key stages in history, as the following examples show: U.K. path to industrialization:6. There’s mycelium in there, all kinds of micro-bacterias that are growing in the ground to make that soil alive – a living breathing thing. Rashid – So back to the farmer that would use the waste from his farm. 4. Ikerd JE. Public domain. But you need to talk about what Monsanto is. Plant Life, • Note #3: The “hybridized” seeds (such as corn, soy, etc.) You go out into the cotton fields and the soil is dead because its been mono-cropped. Industrialization is a transformation away from an agricultural- or resource-based economy, toward an economy based on mass manufacturing. But agriculture production was reduced because of droughts. Industrialization is the process by which an economy moves from primarily agrarian production to mass-produced and technologically advanced goods and services. Below is the audio and transcription of a July 2011 interview with urban farmer Rashid Nuri about both the history and impact of industrial agriculture. This paper provides historical background on the industrialization of animal agriculture that has led to current public concern and conflict over ILOs. But the real action comes from what are you going to do about it. And that’s a problem. 11. Many other industries in the food system, including animal slaughtering and processing, also underwent major consolidation. The simple reason is you think about what you put down the toilet your very self and if you would want some of that going back into your foods – no, I don’t think so. So what you put back is going to be a throwback from the previous generations of seeds where the seeds have been crossed genetically and thus that keeps farmer in debt to and beholden to the seed companies that provide them with new seed that they have to pay for. Between 1964 and 1976, total pesticide applications on major U.S. crops increased by 143 percent. And it was thought this was the way to approach all of agriculture and all of life. The man from the department of agriculture called me up yesterday. Agriculture must be treated as an industry, with the objective of industrializing the value chain of every agricultural commodity. Before 1776: Life in the American Colonies [lectures]. 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