This study evaluates the use of Steel Slag Aggregates (SSA) as substitute for natural aggregates in the production of hot mix asphalt (HMA) for road construction. 3���v��Q|��cB�)������Cg��;/�W�Z� 09 Oct 2019. application of slag is possible in different road layers. LD slag has a series of advantages over natural rock in the field of road construction. in road construction industries is gradually gaining significant importance in India, in light of the disposal, environmental problems and gradual depletion of natural resources, such as soil and aggregates. Dermal contact with EAF slag occurs in many occupational and environmental settings because it is used widely in construction and other industrial sectors for various applications including asphaltic paving, road bases, construction fill, and as feed for cement kilns construction. Lili Ma, Dingbin Xu, Shengyue Wang & Xingyu Gu. Steel slag SMA has high temperature stability. The test road has shown excellent performance after 3 years’ service with abrasion and friction coefficient of 55 BPN and surface texture depth of 0.8 mm design. Granulated slag forms sand-sized particles of glass and is primarily used to make cementitious material. Steel furnace slag sales in 2006 were for use in road bases and surfaces (51%), asphaltic concrete (12%), for fill (18%), and the balance for other uses. Over the subbase, an impermeable asphalt layer was structured. • … It also contains phosphorous, calcium, ash, remnants of flux materials such as limestone, and remainders of chemical reactions between the metal and the furnace lining. Ground steel slag has been used in several different cementing systems. Used steel slag as aggregate can not only solve shortage of excellent natural aggregate but also enhance the performance of road.This paper inverstigated the performance of fly-ash steel slag road-base and cement concrete by using steel slag aggregate,analyzes the problem of application of steel slag aggregate and looks forward to the prospect of steel slag aggregate. <> Dipl. "Ontario's Experience with Reclaimed Materials for Use as Aggregates," Proceedings, International Road Federation/ Transportation Association of Canada Conference, Volume 6, Calgary, Alberta, July 1994. Although the construction industry does use some slag as an aggregate, most is simply discarded. CONTI. Steel furnace slag is a co-product of the steel making process and Edw. Setting the foundation for that change, Iowa DNR issued a memo in 2006 stating steel slag could be used in several ways, including as an alternative to gravel, without the agency's approval. steelmaking slag for road base course use. In other words, aggregates are used as a stable foundation or road/rail base with predictable, ... and steel furnace slag sold or used in the U.S. was 8.7 million tonnes valued at $40 million. A comprehensive study was conducted to characterize SSA and determine the potential for its use in road bases. Its disposal causing severe health and environmental hazards in road construction industries is gradually gaining significant importance in India considering the disposal, environmental problems and gradual depletion of natural resources like soil and aggregates. t�猛 K�7l%��Wk���{�{�&�A��t)L����-3-,{"����'t��\�?-ja%Y�� 3����S��p v� =3�a���{��W����� FX�ώ���)�Ay)�b�� �x�� The subbase of this road was constructed from steel slag. DOI: 10.4267/dechets-sciences-techniques.3151 Corpus ID: 53572545. Mechanical performance of cement-stabilised soil containing recycled glass as road base layer. BP��*:7���F&�e$�%S%����DV�X}rŬ��4�&@TYqb !�B0�-"D�͝�b3�O.�re�3�.���"���؃�i4@��_Q���aYtm5�0K�e��u_#�Gp�EgE��ϩ6e�oj�2���������m�qx2`4�o��6��R�!�`�L�J\�7uo�B�x,K�.0B�HI�[>���Al��Qr�A������S$V(E��8��*㽾�LRΞ ��ш�UJ�"�Ȥ� [�������+�?|�� #��P��^_o��}1�̛".�BoR�8E�E`�@M�����M~.;gU�g>cpt�rz����c�(I���9��2���˿����91*��:`�?����c�4�����s�bxq|@\�j2��w���[. )@ �)������E�Pz�}��M��G"�*QJ��G[�ݖaTo��@=�l|�E]�8Y��ߴ�b�;x5��h~�-s8OE�U����|����"Yܢ:��578S�ٷ(uM�r�i�n��fB g�����A |�+. Just over 80 per cent of the slag produced today is used in different applications, both internally within the steel plants and externally. Slag is a sustainable product that can be recycled and reused multiple times. The research focused on the use of different types of slag in road construction in Ukraine. With high particle density and hardness, this slag has superior wear resistance and for this reason is used as an aggregate for asphalt concrete. 4 0 obj There was extensive use in 1980's and by the 1990's there was in excess of 488,000 tonnes consumed in a variety of applications. Such as used industrial material like steel slag in construction of road pavement. In either case the iron contamination of the slag is separated and sold for re-melting. It also minimizes any re-oxidation of the final liquid metal product before the molten metal is removed from the furnace and used to make solid metal. Furthermore, BOF slag and EAF slag are used in asphaltic mixes and road-base layers. The practical application of the LF slag differs from the … Slag is a byproduct of metal smelting, and hundreds of tons of it are produced every year all over the world in the process of refining metals and making alloys.Like other industrial byproducts, slag actually has many uses, and rarely goes to waste. The chemical properties of the aggregates vary depending on the furnace, feed stock and slag formers used to produce the steel. <> It is also successfully used as an aggregate for concrete. Steel Research. Expansion inhibition of steel slag in asphalt mixture by a surface water isolation structure. The E4 highway south of Nyköping in Sweden incorporates a base course of blast furnace slag. the use of blast furnace slags in road pavement base and sub-base construction The thesis was submitted for the degree of master of engineering at the University of Newcastle, New South Wales. Slag use is subject to strict regulations and standards. The aggregate formed from the slag is comprised of calcium oxide (CaO), silicon oxide (SiO 2), iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 Steel slag is a byproduct from either the conversion of iron to steel in a basic oxygen furnace, or the melting of scrap to make steel in an electric arc furnace. This leads to reduction of landfills reserved for In another base stabilization method, a pozzolan aggregate mixture (PAM) is used for base construction. !���Ҥ)*#F����?j�"]�o��;p�����/����Е �l��cx�x�B@S�Jز�@��V�^1>2��H"/��7�i�4�_ ����=��#������4�A+�[�?�p�}O ]��Y�K��-ѓVx�?�-N���}�����`_X���h�����찏�}b��Y9�ef�^�^�7�#�k�B�̊9>;������ ��� u�[f���s���dRƥ On the Road to Stability. Steel Slag was originally used in the 1970's and and consisted of premium surface course HMA. Characteristics and Uses of Steel Slag in Building Construction focuses predominantly on the utilization of ferrous slag (blast furnace and steel slag) in building construction.. Function of sub-base is to distribute the stresses over a wide area of the subgrade imposed by the traffic. Each type of slag has its own characteristics such as the use of ground granulated BF iron slag, as an addition to the Portland cement. Granulated blast furnace slag sales in 2006 were for use in cementitious materials (94%), and the balance for other uses. Slag has a greater PSV (Polished Stone Value): i.e., greater resistance to wear. Slag is by-product of steel making. %���� slag (GGBFS). The utilization of waste materials, such as coal ash, copper slag, steel slag, jarofix, zinc slag, etc. • It is can be used in the rural road or village road. All slag is crushed, screened and graded to specific sizes. Environmental assessment of a BOF steel slag used in road construction : The ECLAIR research program @inproceedings{Legret2009EnvironmentalAO, title={Environmental assessment of a BOF steel slag used in road construction : The ECLAIR research program}, author={Michel Legret and P. Chaurand and A. 4.3 Road Pavement use By controlling the lancet hydraulic property of steel slag, it can be effectively used as a pavement material. the primary ap-plications for steel slag in the United States are as a granular base or as an aggregate material in … 3 0 obj Steel slags are used as coarse aggregates in the pavement bases and subbase, providing relatively high binding strength, as well as high frictional and abrasion resistance. DPM uses geo-grids, recycled tyres, steel slag to pave roads in Abu Dhabi Authority is using eco-friendly materials, including recycled concrete and asphalt-polymer mixes, to build roads sustainably CW Archives. C. Levy Co. reclaims this as a cost-effective and durable aggregate for road building. The history of slag use in road building dates back to the time of the Roman Empire, some 2000 years ago, when broken slag from the crude iron-making forges of that era were used in base construction. Steel slag as aggregate has many well-known applications in road construction such as, hot mix asphalt, cement concrete mix, antiskid-layer, granular-base and subbase layers. At the moment, most steel slag is being used as unbound aggregate for ashphalt concrete pavement in many countries. From: Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Cementitious Construction Materials, 2018 Used steel slag as aggregate can not only solve shortage of excellent natural aggregate but also enhance the performance of road.This paper inverstigated the performance of fly-ash steel slag road-base and cement concrete by using steel slag aggregate,analyzes the problem of application of steel slag aggregate and looks forward to the prospect of steel slag aggregate. . Approximately 15 to 40% of the 10–15 million metric tons of steel slag generated in the United States in 2006 was not utilized . Steel Slag - Granular Base INTRODUCTION Steel slag can be used as aggregate in granular base applications. A small amount of BF slag gets air cooled. endobj It also minimizes any re-oxidation of the final liquid metal product before the molten metal is removed from the furnace and used to make solid metal. This study evaluates the use of Steel Slag Aggregates (SSA) as substitute for natural aggregates in the production of hot mix asphalt (HMA) for road construction. The slag produced is very angular and porous with a rough surface texture (Figure 1). Slag is commonly used to make cement. Use of this product in the road … They also offer significant environmental benefits such as the reuse or recycling of material and the avoidance of the need to quarry natural aggregates. Ing. Visit Copyright Clearance Center. Basic Use:Aggregates are used for base and subbase road construction. Slag has lighter CBR value than fly ash and hence saving in excess than fly ash use. Rosalia Pacheco-Torres & … today, approximately 8 million tons of steel slag is used annually in the United States. endobj Laboratory and field data have shown the superior performance of SSA over the locally available calcareous sediments. However, slag could be used to treat acid soils or acid mine drainage. Alternatively, some of these materials can be utilized in recycling processes, manufacturing of new products, or as construction materials. Abu Dhabi is sustainably paving roads [representational image]. In all base courses, slag is utilized as much as any othercrushednaturalmaterial,withsimilarorbetterresults. Today, approximately 8 million tons of steel slag is used each year in the United States. �(;ʅ7NY���m|�)�+a7Y��=��{,������+o��&�V��l8����.Z;�կ�Z�u�ӑ!�F�6n2�zh1����-��� n��`t�(1��&Dps۸t� �t��X��h�M����sP,��Q'�jc���iol�hOhh��oXk�C�OC�c�) This is the result of its mineral composition. C. Levy Co. reclaims this as a cost-effective and durable aggregate for road building. The use of steel slag also provides economies of scale when used in the road construction process, addressing India’s growing infrastructure needs Steel slag can be used as a soil neutralizer for highly acidic soils in areas such as Eastern India; it’s use as a fertilizer has also been well-established Slag is one of the active components in the metallurgical processes that give steel the desired for properties. endobj Materials: CBR of 15%; Passing through 425 micron IS sieve; L.L<25 and P.I<6; Waste material such as Fly ash, Iron and steel slag Recycled concrete Municipal waste are also used. Doing so would both offset the cost of restoring abandoned mine areas, as well as decrease steel manufacturers’ current waste footprint. Hence it can be used in the base course and sub-base course in road co nstruction. Nippon Steel & Sumi-tomo Metal ships steelmaking slag for road base course use after confirming that it meets the quality standard (volume expansion ra-tio in 80°C water ≤1.5%) by the test method according to JIS A 5015.4) 3.3 Alkalinity Because of the CaO content, water leaching from steelmaking BOF slags most important factor as to why it can be effectively used for road base course is the prevention of expansion which has been faced previously cause of hydration expansion of free CaO. Slag is by-product of steel making. It is also used in ready-mixed concrete, concrete products, asphaltic concrete, road bases and surfaces, fill, clinker raw material, railroad ballast, roofing, mineral wool (for use as insulation) and soil conditioner. History of Slag Usage Blast Furnace Slag has been used in Canada as a road and plant base material since the early 1900's. This paper reviews the production, processing, and characteristics of steel slag, and its use as a cementing component in different cementing systems. Duraberm, which is made from steel furnace slag, is a strong and sustainable material that holds up under heavy truck traffic, provides long service life, and helps control project cost. Steel slag can be used in the construction industry as aggregates in concrete by replacing natural aggregates. PAM contains approximately 85 percent aggregate, 3 to 4 percent lime, and 12 percent flyash. Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.Slag is usually a mixture of metal oxides and silicon dioxide.However, slags can contain metal sulfides and elemental metals. The most common use is as an aggregate in the manufacture of asphalt. by Anup Oommen. Blast Furnace Slag has been used in Canada as a road and plant base material since the early 1900's. 6�����L�q�5��:@#�|g��Yt����/�k�!1H�c�G4�G#����q��uaFY� Ԭɫ+�k����7�r���#`�k�i�-ۡ>A�)� �31X-�t{�v�Ҋ�r��ꓖ�ѐ�%�q��lm�^|��*a��>�o�|�tG���J/7�v=c�!X(�pG����d I��I��l 1�v*fy���!�:�]���nt��p���)f��[v�nWf��X6,�rN�;۩�RۣU&��ٞ�H���6�ؗ%���?�ڊ@��LGcb��;�ag��(F|J�֕+"� ����*_�y���Ώ���-�6}G�m��o�Jt��zǮb��5;e������ۼ���TL2�b���X����LC�B�?�����%��3����?�g�$B�b���%����D}�'�܍��"�`q��o�?�MRں�W;O{��������g���� �`��7l����z���+b�v���f�}���b�I:��:��Ͱ�ZR��>�(��������Y?ړ��p.X��r�d�9'�B�Q��B�H���^G:�2��ѣo$sG$r����_��#�(�u&q���� F��� )������ݸ��-�v��~g��5�7j�c0O��!f���݈c�+ Steel slag is a by-product of the steel industry and can be used potentially as aggregate in asphalt mixture. ����w��*��e�k�I��d4r����X v���ृ7?�������=F�ߝI��H��=��/��6�L���sc����/1�|g�}:ͅE��[}��X�I�X�i)J��9�C.�](磀'$�eg��J�*���vj�ŷ��+T`Y� ! Setting the foundation for that change, Iowa DNR issued a memo in 2006 stating steel slag could be used in several ways, including as an alternative to gravel, without the agency's approval. F��u$9�,�Fu8چu��qa�����:pd��v+��h֖��Ƅؕ�K#ⴒ�U�Y�0�e��^Va�kz܏J=�n���{��+P���e�� ��W�������O ��NrYOb�� Products and Services / Standards & Publications / Journals / Journal of Testing and Evaluation, (Received 15 July 2004; accepted 8 August 2005), Permissions to reprint documents can be acquired throughCopyright Clearance Center   The iron and steel slag used as aggregates for asphalt roads are iron and steel by-products. What is Slag? Steel furnace slag is a co-product of the steel making process and Edw. %PDF-1.5 It is recognised that an inferior base course or sub-base layer may lead to the failure of a road pavement. This paper presents an effective way of utilizing the steel slag aggregate (SSA), which is a byproduct of the steel manufacturing process, in road construction. Pasetto and Baldo (2012a, 2012b) used EAF slag in SMA. Volume 71, Issue 11. This paper presents an effective way of utilizing the steel slag aggregate (SSA), which is a byproduct of the steel manufacturing process, in road construction. ������o�@���qC���H��ιi�{J+�|�Y������)�ҷ\'Ѱ@�L���1��6kq���`�X��X�:����ZJ�t���� ]���S a���m�8��z e����u��4R����h�)�=E� f�k���]C���#Q It appears in concrete, aggregate road materials, as ballast, and is sometimes used as a component of phosphate fertilizer. Aggregatc used in PAM should be well graded stone, sand, gravel, or slag with a maximum size of 1 inch. For RefWorks, EndNote, ProCite, Reference Manager, Zoteo, and many others. Industrial wastes and byproducts have to be disposed off properly so that their environmental impacts are minimized. �oE-��x&3�N�W�0T�}9�H�s^�v�n�ľk���Y6���B��� ��qbxM�z��T2� �����L� 8q�QM��1�D�a��F82� Testing results indicated that SSA is an environmentally safe product and has physical and chemical properties that make it an excellent candidate for road base construction. Almost all GGBFS is used as a partial substitute for portland cement in concrete mixes or in blended cements. This document is part of your ASTM Compass® subscription. Essentially it is a mixture of oxides, silicates and aluminates. It is eco-friendly because weare doing waste manag e-ment. option for this byproduct is by recycling. The air cooled BF slag is either dumped as landfills or used in road repairs within the steel plant. Most of the BF liquid slag gets granulated and is sold to cement manufacturers for the manufacture of BF slag cement. Slags are generally used to remove waste in metal smelting and assists in the temperature control of the smelting. Slags are generally used to remove waste in metal smelting and assists in the temperature control of the smelting. Such construction leads to averting any outflows and inflows of … Approximately 15 to 40% of the 10–15 million metric tons of steel slag generated in the United States in 2006 was not utilized [ 23 ]. Steel slag also has numerous applications, such as an efficient non-slip choice for asphalt pavement where friction is desirable. With high particle density and hardness, this slag has superior wear resistance and for this reason is used as an aggregate for asphalt concrete. 1 0 obj DPM uses geo-grids, recycled tyres, steel slag to pave roads in Abu Dhabi Authority is using eco-friendly materials, including recycled concrete and asphalt-polymer mixes, to build roads sustainably ... extended road lifespans, and reduced carbon emissions. Agriculture. The resulting California Bearing Ratio values are doubled and the water sensitivity is much less when using SSA instead of the local calcareous material. • Since slag is fails in abrasion test it can’t be used in the surface course. Steelmaking slag Because of its hydraulic property and the large bearing capacity it can provide, steelmaking slag is used as a road base course material. Advantages of LD slag in road construction. �~qK�X�`sK�tsK�"V�4��էߵ%e�@2�EC��Q��n���= ����m6�f/������Ȥ\r�3��6\�� 4��5��������=S�u���m��� �婑���Z��様�2Dҥ!�g��͊(���ƍkp �H�[�G�iVz��@��~�Ûp�U�:mLX�芔�� ɰ-[t�C��3>n�� Mainly as a granular road base or as an aggregate in construction applications, steel slag aggregate (SSA) has been successfully used in the Middle East under hot weather conditions . 2 0 obj y&�zc� �o�U����3� ]S[���V�*δ2�怰,��� \�K�� In addition to applications requiring graded aggregates, pit run steel slag is extensively used for subbase construction in some areas, especially where weak subgrade conditions exist. [ԧ� 6�83BJ��&�D\�Y�()�Ǯ�9 �A������q~w*��k$�p)��/�1[MnF ��:����K� b���:�_�s�;�:��+Nhr)����t�Y�ML^�|��:��^�B�f��i�<<5��_NR��4��M��Z� �5h����|pHi�a���tf�aj���e:�R��a�a����y��_ͮ���c=b�i�b7���6Zp�~� z>�2t����E}L�y� �?���8��S'c1��*TOuw���.qrFz����H�3]A�,3"�]�L�p�R�bȪ5];�h���e��Q�;��'%�9�c(�ʶv�HH�,���A�P�1�Cc#|�+�Tjj�bD�p7>X6���J4bjg#��Q�����8�r�����o���ʪ�t�t�BX.1���}D�)�$1�%�(=Vq�Zu��{�ɑ螿+'nyUY\T���b�]L�p}���!�fo�$�Z ��G}�o��r���̐���̤���&Y�p �L�`��sY�>b��6� 9��. Due to its positive technical characteristics, LD slag is used all over the world in road and railway construction and for engineering. Greater hardness. Applications were quite sporadic until the last century, when large quantities began to be used for a number of purposes. [�����4@1�"�l>�歊̞�H���zԩ�3S�|D,rʹa�w�=10�J��l|�G�.��a�Iq�+��h)Q'Mq����3��f�k�:�=�R��6'��������R�;�� \\ <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 595.32 842.04] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Steel slag was cut off by construction of the drainage layer under the subbase to prevent capillary actions. … In concrete, processed steel and blast furnace slag provide a sustainable alternative to primary aggregates in the production of lightweight or dense ready-mixed concrete. Blast furnace slag can also be used to make Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS) which is used … 18. Characteristics and Uses of Steel Slag in Building Construction focuses predominantly on the utilization of ferrous slag (blast furnace and steel slag) in building construction.. Like other metallurgical slags, steel slags exhibit a great potential to be used as aggregate in highway construction. Common components of slag include the oxides of silicon, aluminum, and magnesium, as well as sulfur, which is always present. Slag is a co-product of the manufacture of iron and steel. Steel slag waste material for the construction of road. Mainly as a granular road base or as an aggregate in construction applications, steel slag aggregate (SSA) has been successfully used in the Middle East under hot weather conditions [ 24 ]. The use of steel slag in these cementing systems results in some advantages over conventional cements. Such slag is a valuable raw material for preparation of macadam materials and mineral binders serving as a base for asphalt concrete mixtures and manufacturing of cement emulsions, which are widely used in road paving. A comprehensive study was conducted to characterize SSA and determine the potential for its use in road bases. Aiban, SA Associate Professor, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran. Physical and chemical characterization of steel slag is a deciding factor of steel slag utilization depending on the properties it can be used as road aggregate, cement and concrete admixture, soil stabilizer, construction materials, etc. Steel furnace slag (SFS) aggregate is a by-product of the steel making process. You are being redirected because this document is part of your ASTM Compass® subscription. The consequences: less wear and longer road lifetimes. stream Steelmaking slag Because of its hydraulic property and the large bearing capacity it can provide, steelmaking slag is used as a road base course material. The use of slag is clearly regulated for particular applications. Steel aggregates have a high abrasion and crushing resistance for road applications: air cooled blast furnace products bond particularly well to cement and bitumous binders. The same source specifies the presence of slag in base courses: the use of slag is the biggest in , somewhat lower in cement-stabilized layers and in asphalt mixtures. Process metallurgy. x��3��$��3yH�-�2�iɑh;���w��CR�d��� ��.���wU�|~�������]s��^���o�����^�y��|��������,��~�LD �'�BƉ̢��c]�>�Dk�������g�b�/ϲE���M ��g�?ۥ�M��s���l�w4������B{�X��M�,���w_G+��^6xZ5�3���/��恞��^^-��g��:�߼�x��~Y.�]~���[�5���5͓��^����(g��K�\\|�����/�Ŧ�� xX=_|�]#��j���;9A� $,�e��_ O�P��2�un_�H�|�/U�y�"���1� +��p��������ܜ�`Tu��dX,��CP%��9�E,�iK�Ȫ�4}]���8����{��ow���迗���붻�m�r)���{x��o�I]'��x� ^�$b�����_G2A���}���a��YY��7r6۷$��}�l���b������_Q��%qR���Ͳ,*3�,�5ϟ���h��0v^"�U�d�� F�TŽ�z�쿞?��~�::�щ��}��=�Ө�+r�B�pq���jX$��E��7Q��v���Hu>>>M�� � �P�x��"� W)���?��������/�Y0+ �O=�Mt�}0'Y�d8�F̮RU�J�?�� � ��i^��h:��.s\.�8�� �? Ferrous slag is currently underutilized. Steel slag is residue from the steelmaking process, made of minerals like silica, alumina and titanium from iron sand, and combinations of calcium and magnesium oxides. ^ (W:��jh���#�-�� Leaching behaviour of rock material and slag used in road construction ‐ amineralogical interpretation. <>>> Air-cooled iron slag and steel slag are used primarily as aggregates in concrete (air-cooled iron slag only); asphaltic paving, fill, and road bases; both slag types also can be used as a feed for cement kilns. Air-cooled blast furnace slag sales in 2006 were for use in road bases and surfaces (41%), asphaltic concrete (13%), ready-mixed concrete (16%), and the balance for other uses. Duraberm, which is made from steel furnace slag, is a strong and sustainable material that holds up under heavy truck traffic, provides long service life, and helps control project cost. Steel Furnace Slag Aggregate tecHNIcAL Note 09 INTRODUCTION This Technical Note provides information on the properties of steel furnace slag aggregate and potential uses in roadworks. . Natural aggregates are becoming increasingly scarce and their production and shipment is becoming more difficult. Steel slag is a by-product of the steel industry and can be used potentially as aggregate in asphalt mixture. Or in blended cements 's and and consisted of premium surface course HMA of restoring abandoned mine,! Outflows and inflows of … slag is a co-product of the manufacture asphalt. In excess than fly ash and hence saving in excess than fly ash and hence saving excess... Is simply discarded BF slag is commonly used to produce the steel making process and Edw amineralogical.... In the field of road othercrushednaturalmaterial, withsimilarorbetterresults doubled and the avoidance of the smelting CBR than. 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( 2012a, 2012b ) used EAF slag are used for base and subbase road construction ash, copper,. Bf liquid slag gets granulated and is sold to cement manufacturers for the construction of the steel gravel. Sold to cement manufacturers for the construction industry as aggregates for asphalt pavement where friction is.. ` Y� essentially it is can be effectively used as an aggregate for building. Use in road bases 1 ) • … in another base stabilization method, pozzolan! Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 3 to 4 percent,! Greater resistance to wear specific sizes well as decrease steel manufacturers ’ waste. Base stabilization method, a pozzolan aggregate mixture ( PAM ) is used in Canada as a road plant! [ representational image ]: aggregates are used for base and subbase road construction temperature control of the making. Saving in excess than fly ash use is much less when using SSA instead the... 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